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Mass fraction (relation between mass and molar concentration)

In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture. The mass concentration of a component ... more

Langmuir equation

The Langmuir equation (also known as the Langmuir isotherm, Langmuir adsorption equation or Hill-Langmuir equation) relates the coverage or adsorption of ... more

Hill equation

In biochemistry, the binding of a ligand to a macromolecule is often enhanced if there are already other ligands present on the same macromolecule (this is ... more


In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. It is expressed in newton metres (N·m) or foot-pound force (ft·lbf). In ... more

Molar concentration

In chemistry, the molar concentration, is defined as the amount of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture. It is also called molarity, ... more

Volume concentration

The volume concentration (also called volume fraction) is defined as the volume of one of the constituents divided by the volume of all constituents of the ... more

Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics (reaction rate)

Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.The model takes the form of an equation describing the rate of enzymatic ... more

Bagnold number

he Bagnold number (Ba) is the ratio of grain collision stresses to viscous fluid stresses in a granular flow with interstitial Newtonian fluid, first ... more

Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics (maximum reaction rate)

Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.The model takes the form of an equation describing the rate of enzymatic ... more

Worksheet 296

(a) Calculate the buoyant force on 10,000 metric tons (1.00×10 7 kg) of solid steel completely submerged in water, and compare this with the steel’s weight.

(b) What is the maximum buoyant force that water could exert on this same steel if it were shaped into a boat that could displace 1.00×10 5 m 3 of water?

Strategy for (a)

To find the buoyant force, we must find the weight of water displaced. We can do this by using the densities of water and steel given in Table [insert table #] We note that, since the steel is completely submerged, its volume and the water’s volume are the same. Once we know the volume of water, we can find its mass and weight

First, we use the definition of density to find the steel’s volume, and then we substitute values for mass and density. This gives :


Because the steel is completely submerged, this is also the volume of water displaced, Vw. We can now find the mass of water displaced from the relationship between its volume and density, both of which are known. This gives:


By Archimedes’ principle, the weight of water displaced is m w g , so the buoyant force is:

Force (Newton's second law)

The steel’s weight is 9.80×10 7 N , which is much greater than the buoyant force, so the steel will remain submerged.

Strategy for (b)

Here we are given the maximum volume of water the steel boat can displace. The buoyant force is the weight of this volume of water.

The mass of water displaced is found from its relationship to density and volume, both of which are known. That is:


The maximum buoyant force is the weight of this much water, or

Force (Newton's second law)


The maximum buoyant force is ten times the weight of the steel, meaning the ship can carry a load nine times its own weight without sinking.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Activity coefficient

An activity coefficient is a factor used in thermodynamics to account for deviations from ideal behaviour in a mixture of chemical substances.In an ideal ... more

Torsion constant (Circle -cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s ... more

Osmotic pressure

is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as ... more


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. ... more

Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the ... more

Concentration of a substance (first order reaction)

The concentration of a substance at time “t”, of a first-order reaction, depends only on the initial concentration and the properties of the ... more


Dilution is a reduction in the concentration of a chemical (gas, vapor, solution). It is the process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, ... more

Tritration ( concentration of the analyte)

Titration, also known as titrimetry or volumetric analysis, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the ... more

Dalton's law - Volume-based concentration

The formula provides a way to determine the volume-based concentration of any individual gaseous component.

Dalton’s law is not strictly ... more

Fick principle (calculation of cardiac output)

The essence of the Fick principle is that blood flow to an organ can be calculated using a marker substance if the following information is known:
... more

Hall coefficient in semiconductors (for moderate magnetic fields)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Capacitance of Concentric spheres capacitors

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. Concentric or ... more

Solute sieving coefficient

The selection of synthetic membranes for a targeted separation process is usually based on few requirements. Membranes have to provide enough mass transfer ... more

Henry's law

In physics, Henry’s law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. ... more

Diffusion Coefficient - related to Fick's laws of diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is ... more

First-order reaction (rate of disintegration)

A first-order reaction depends on the concentration of only one reactant (a unimolecular reaction). Other reactants can be present, but ... more

Degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte

The degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte is proportional to the inverse square root of the concentration, or the square root of the dilution

... more

Henry's law constant (dimensionless)

Henry’s law states : “At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly ... more

Law of dilution of a weak electrolyte (Ostwald)

Is a relationship between the dissociation constant “Kd” and the degree of dissociation “α” of a weak electrolyte

... more

Solute flux (Forward osmosis)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

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