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Activity coefficient

An activity coefficient is a factor used in thermodynamics to account for deviations from ideal behaviour in a mixture of chemical substances.In an ideal ... more

Torsion constant (Circle -cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s ... more

Osmotic pressure

is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as ... more


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. ... more

Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the ... more

Concentration of a substance (first order reaction)

The concentration of a substance at time “t”, of a first-order reaction, depends only on the initial concentration and the properties of the ... more


Dilution is a reduction in the concentration of a chemical (gas, vapor, solution). It is the process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, ... more

Tritration ( concentration of the analyte)

Titration, also known as titrimetry or volumetric analysis, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the ... more

Dalton's law - Volume-based concentration

The formula provides a way to determine the volume-based concentration of any individual gaseous component.

Dalton’s law is not strictly ... more

Fick principle (calculation of cardiac output)

The essence of the Fick principle is that blood flow to an organ can be calculated using a marker substance if the following information is known:
... more

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