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Friction Loss (hydraulic slope) - related to pressure change

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

Shear rate at the inner wall of a Newtonian fluid (flowing within a pipe)

A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are proportional to the local strain rate — the rate of ... more

Convective heat transfer coefficient with Nusselt number for Internal/turbulent flow

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Bernoulli’s Equation (conservation of energy)

Bernoulli’s equation states that for an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the above mentioned sum is constant. If we follow a small volume of fluid along ... more

Torque for a desired preload ( fasteners )

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Borda–Carnot equation ( in relation to Bernoulli's principle)

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

Petroff's Law - Torque required to shear the lubricant film

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Hydraulic diameter

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more

Borda–Carnot equation

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)

Terminal velocity is simply the fastest speed that a falling object can reach in a certain circumstance. Different objects have different terminal ... more

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