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In heat transfer at a boundary (surface) within a fluid, the Nusselt number (Nu) is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across (normal to) ... more

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. Surface tension is an important property ... more

A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are proportional to the local strain rate — the rate of ... more

Bernoulli’s equation states that for an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the above mentioned sum is constant. If we follow a small volume of fluid along ... more

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring ... more

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more

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