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Force due to water hammer (Slow valve closure)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Friction velocity (shear velocity)

Friction velocity, is a form by which a shear stress may be re-written in units of velocity. It is useful as a method in fluid mechanics to compare true ... more

Alfvén velocity

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring ... more

Surface Tension - surface area growth : energy

Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. Surface tension is an important property ... more

Volumetric flow rate (parallel to the unit normal)

volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time. The only ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (sudden expansion of a horizontal pipe)

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Floating objects (weight that depresses the surface)

When an object is placed on a liquid, its weight depresses the surface, and is balanced by the surface tension forces on either side , which are each ... more

Stress (mechanical)

Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. Any strain ... more

Womersley Number

The Womersley number (α) is a dimensionless number in biofluid mechanics. It is a dimensionless expression of the pulsatile flow frequency in relation to ... more

Magnus effect

The Magnus effect is the commonly observed effect in which a spinning ball (or cylinder) curves away from its principal flight path.The overall behaviour ... more

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