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Osmotic pressure

is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as ... more

Boiling point elevation (ebullioscopy)

Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a ... more

Van der Waals equation of state

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons: Molecules are thought as ... more

Freezing point depression (cryoscopy)

Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a ... more

Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Molar Refractivity - related to pressure

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Density of an ideal gas

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of gases is strongly affected by ... more

Redlich-Kwong (b - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Redlich-Kwong (a - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Van 't Hoff equation

The Van 't Hoff equation in chemical thermodynamics relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical equilibrium to the change in ... more

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