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Osmotic pressure

is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as ... more

Boiling point elevation (ebullioscopy)

Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a ... more

Van der Waals equation of state

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons: Molecules are thought as ... more

Freezing point depression (cryoscopy)

Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend upon the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a ... more

Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Molar Refractivity - related to pressure

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Density of an ideal gas

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of gases is strongly affected by ... more

Redlich-Kwong (b - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Redlich-Kwong (a - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Van 't Hoff equation

The Van 't Hoff equation in chemical thermodynamics relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical equilibrium to the change in ... more

Molar Refractivity

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state

The Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) was developed in 1976 at The University of Alberta by Ding-Yu Peng and Donald ... more

Arrhenius number

In chemical kinetics, the pre-exponential factor or A factor is the pre-exponential constant in the Arrhenius equation. Here named as Arrhenius number.

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Solute flux (Forward osmosis)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Ideal gas law (Molar form)

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behaviour of many gases under many conditions, ... more

Diffusion coefficient (Mass diffusivity) for gases

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

Reduced specific volume

In thermodynamicsIn thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its ... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state (a component)

refer to Peng–Robinson equation of state.

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Peng–Robinson equation of state (b component)

refer to Peng–Robinson equation of state.

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Ideal gas law (Common form)

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behaviour of many gases under many conditions, ... more

Root mean square speed

Root-mean-square speed is the measure of the speed of particles in a gas that is most convenient for problem solving within the kinetic theory of gases. It ... more

Standard change of reaction in Gibbs free energy

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of pressure

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Rate constant (collisions in chemical reactions)

Collision theory qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions. The collision theory states ... more

Specific gas constant

The ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol R or R) is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, ... more

Cryoscopic constant

Freezing-point depression describes the process in which adding a solute to a solvent decreases the freezing point of the solvent. freezing-point ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Exhaust Gas Velocity

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Ebullioscopic constant

An ebullioscope (from the Latin ēbullīre is an instrument for measuring the boiling point of a liquid. This can be used for determining the alcoholic ... more

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