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In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level ... more

In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing. The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level ... more

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

The lift coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the associated reference area and the fluid ... more

The lift coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the density of the fluid around the body, its ... more

Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth’s sea level, and commonly represents the boundary between the ... more

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals. It is employed by ... more

Thrust-to-weight ratio (TWR) is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle ... more

Thrust-to-weight ratio (TWR) is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle ... more

Energyâ€“maneuverability theory is a model of aircraft performance. It was developed by Col. John Boyd, and is useful in describing an aircraft’s ... more

The NACA airfoils are airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (... more

Equivalent airspeed (EAS) is the airspeed at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere at which the dynamic pressure is ... more

Equivalent airspeed (EAS) is the airspeed at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere at which the dynamic pressure is ... more

Equivalent airspeed (EAS) is the airspeed at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere at which the dynamic pressure is ... more

The true airspeed (TAS; also KTAS, for knots true airspeed) of an aircraft is the speed of the aircraft relative to the airmass ... more

Safe Working Load (SWL) sometimes stated as the Normal Working Load (NWL) is the maximum safe force ... more

**(a)** In the case of the wheelbarrow, the output force or load is between the pivot and the input force. The pivot is the wheelâ€™s axle. Here, the output force is greater than the input force. Thus, a wheelbarrow enables you to lift much heavier loads than you could with your body alone. **(b)** In the case of the shovel, the input force is between the pivot and the load, but the input lever arm is shorter than the output lever arm. The pivot is at the handle held by the right hand. Here, the output force (supporting the shovelâ€™s load) is less than the input force (from the hand nearest the load), because the input is exerted closer to the pivot than is the output.

Strategy

Here, we use the concept of mechanical advantage.

Discussion

An even longer handle would reduce the force needed to lift the load. The MA here is:

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

A leadscrew (or lead screw), also known as a power screw or translation screw, is a screw used as a linkage in a machine, to translate turning motion into ... more

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

A leadscrew (or lead screw), also known as a power screw or translation screw, is a screw used as a linkage in a machine, to translate turning motion into ... more

All wind turbines operate with a yaw error. In this case an extreme yaw error of 30 degrees is assumed. The flapwise blade root bending moment due to that ... more

A typical small rescue helicopter, like the one in the Figure below, has four blades, each is **4.00 m** long and has a mass of **50.0 kg**. The blades can be approximated as thin rods that rotate about one end of an axis perpendicular to their length. The helicopter has a total loaded mass of **1000 kg**. **(a)** Calculate the rotational kinetic energy in the blades when they rotate at **300 rpm**. **(b)** Calculate the translational kinetic energy of the helicopter when it flies at **20.0 m/s**, and compare it with the rotational energy in the blades. **(c)** To what height could the helicopter be raised if all of the rotational kinetic energy could be used to lift it?

The first image shows how helicopters store large amounts of rotational kinetic energy in their blades. This energy must be put into the blades before takeoff and maintained until the end of the flight. The engines do not have enough power to simultaneously provide lift and put significant rotational energy into the blades.

The second image shows a helicopter from the Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter Service. Over 50,000 lives have been saved since its operations beginning in 1973. Here, a water rescue operation is shown. (credit: 111 Emergency, Flickr)

Strategy

Rotational and translational kinetic energies can be calculated from their definitions. The last part of the problem relates to the idea that energy can change form, in this case from rotational kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy.

Solution for **(a)**

We must convert the angular velocity to radians per second and calculate the moment of inertia before we can find **E _{r}** . The angular velocity

**Ď‰**for

**1 r.p.m**is

and for **300 r.p.m**

The moment of inertia of one blade will be that of a thin rod rotated about its end.

The total I is four times this moment of inertia, because there are four blades. Thus,

and so The rotational kinetic energy is

Solution for **(b)**

Translational kinetic energy is defined as

To compare kinetic energies, we take the ratio of translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy. This ratio is

Solution for **(c)**

At the maximum height, all rotational kinetic energy will have been converted to gravitational energy. To find this height, we equate those two energies:

Discussion

The ratio of translational energy to rotational kinetic energy is only **0.380**. This ratio tells us that most of the kinetic energy of the helicopter is in its spinning bladesâ€”something you probably would not suspect. The **53.7 m** height to which the helicopter could be raised with the rotational kinetic energy is also impressive, again emphasizing the amount of rotational kinetic energy in the blades.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

A leadscrew (or lead screw), also known as a power screw or translation screw, is a screw used as a linkage in a machine, to translate turning motion into ... more

The Magnus effect is the commonly observed effect in which a spinning ball (or cylinder) curves away from its principal flight path.The overall behaviour ... more

The true airspeed (TAS; also KTAS, for knots true airspeed) of an aircraft is the speed of the aircraft relative to the airmass ... more

Potential energy is the energy of a body or a system with respect to the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of the system. The amount ... more

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In the wheelbarrow of the following figure the load has a perpendicular lever arm of

7.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of1.02 m.(a)What upward force must you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is45.0 kg?(b)What force does the wheelbarrow exert on the ground?