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Internal conversion coefficient

Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with an electron in one of the lower atomic ... more

Hawking radiation energy of black-body (Planck) spectrum

black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A black hole ... more

Absorption coefficient in relation to orbit

Absorption coefficient in relation to orbit

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Time delay for a signal from Earth to a Satelite in geostationary orbit and back

A geostationary orbit, geostationary Earth orbit or geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is an orbit whose position in the sky ... more

Worksheet 341

The aweÔÇÉinspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

Potential energy

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.


then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.


Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.


The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

Time to reach a required delta-v - rocket propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. Space propulsion or in-space propulsion exclusively deals with ... more

Specific internal energy

Specific internal energy is the internal energy per unit mass.

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Schwarzschild radius

The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the ... more

Rydberg formula - For hydrogen-like element

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements. It was formulated by the Swedish ... more

Specific absorption rate (SAR)

Specific absorption rate calculates the rate at which energy is absorbed by the body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. Specific ... more

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