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Van 't Hoff equation

The Van 't Hoff equation in chemical thermodynamics relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical equilibrium to the change in ... more

Rate constant (collisions in chemical reactions)

Collision theory qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions. The collision theory states ... more

Collision Frequency

Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions ... more

Energy Density of electric and magnetic fields

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed ... more

Hole change in Gibbs free energy

In chemistry, a reaction quotient: Qr is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction. In the ... more

Activity coefficient

An activity coefficient is a factor used in thermodynamics to account for deviations from ideal behaviour in a mixture of chemical substances.In an ideal ... more

Energy required for a chemical rocket

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. Space propulsion or in-space propulsion exclusively deals with ... more

Standard change of reaction in Gibbs free energy

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

Enthalpy of isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Minimum chemical rocket energy required

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. Space propulsion or in-space propulsion exclusively deals with ... more

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a defined thermodynamic potential, that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of ... more

Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Carnot cycle

Every single thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its ... more

Nernst Equation - total cell potential

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell ... more

First-order rate constant ( Arrhenius equation)

Arrhenius’ equation gives the dependence of the rate constant “k” of a chemical reaction on the absolute temperature (in kelvin), by the ... more

Stefan Number

Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system that changes the temperature, and some macroscopic variables of the body, but leaves ... more

Energy Density (magnetic field)

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed ... more

Cross Section

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Landauer's Principle

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

Nernst Equation - electrochemical half cell

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell ... more

Ebullioscopic constant

An ebullioscope (from the Latin ēbullīre is an instrument for measuring the boiling point of a liquid. This can be used for determining the alcoholic ... more

Minimum required rocket energy

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. Space propulsion or in-space propulsion exclusively deals with ... more

Cryoscopic constant

Freezing-point depression describes the process in which adding a solute to a solvent decreases the freezing point of the solvent. freezing-point ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics

In statistical mechanics, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics describes the average distribution of non-interacting material particles over various energy states ... more

Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools. The cooling causes the pressure to ... more

Micro chevron (MC) test (critical energy release rate)

The wafer bond characterization is based on different methods and tests. Wafer bonds are commonly characterized by three important encapsulation ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

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