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Plasma conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Electromagnetic mass ( longitudinal mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can ... more

Electromagnetic mass (transverse mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can increase the ... more

Planck's relation

Electrons can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency ... more

Released energy of exergonic reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass ... more

Modulus of resilience

Resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading. Proof resilience is ... more

Angular resolution (by a microscope)

The resolution R (here measured as a distance, not to be confused with the angular resolution of a previous subsection) depends on the angular aperture ... more

Electric Current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried ... more

Joule's first law

Joule heating , is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat. Joule heating is depending on the resistance ... more

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