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Auger electron spectroscopy - The Auger yield (relative to the transition probability)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Total yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - electron impact cross-section

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions (more rigorous model)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Electron impact cross-section (account for matrix effects)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - emitted electron kinetic energy

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Internal conversion coefficient

Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with an electron in one of the lower atomic ... more

Electron orbit radius

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Electron's speed at any radius ( related to the energy level)

Electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus. The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits (called by Bohr the “stationary ... more

Electron's speed at any radius

The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus. These orbits are ... more

Electron's energy

n atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Probability that an electron hits an ion at ionization process

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. If an electron ... more

1st Bohr's condition

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Photoelectric Effect - max kinetic energy of an ejected electron

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Hall coefficient in semiconductors (for moderate magnetic fields)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Planck's relation

Electrons can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency ... more

Ultrasonic flow meter ( speed of sound )

An ultrasonic flow meter is a type of flow meter that measures the velocity of a fluid with ultrasound to calculate volume flow. Ultrasonic flow meters are ... more

Modulus of resilience

Resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading. Proof resilience is ... more

Bragg's Law

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Hall parameter (due to Hall effect in ionized gases)

The Hall parameter, β, in a plasma is the ratio between the electron gyro-frequency, and the electron-heavy particle collision frequency. In a plasma, the ... more

Ultrasonic flow meter ( average velocity )

An ultrasonic flow meter is a type of flow meter that measures the velocity of a fluid with ultrasound to calculate volume flow. Ultrasonic flow meters are ... more

Simplified von Mises equation - General - No restrictions

The von Mises yield criterion suggests that the yielding of materials begins when the second deviatoric stress invariant reaches a critical value. For ... more

Electromotive force - the charge

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted ℰ and measured in volts) is the electrical intensity or “pressure” developed by a source of ... more

Bragg's Law - Lattice Spacing in Cubic Systems

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more

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