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Vertical Curve - Offset

Offsets are vertical distances from the initial tangent to the curve, play a significant role in vertical curve design.

Vertical Curves are the ... more

de Laval nozzle - correlation of Area and Velocity

A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, ... more

Torsional Pendulum (Period)

Torsion balances, torsion pendulums and balance wheels are examples of torsional harmonic oscillators that can oscillate with a rotational motion about the ... more

Rotational stiffness

The stiffness of a body is a measure of the resistance offered by an elastic body to deformation. A body have a rotational stiffness when it is in a ... more

Drift Velocity (with current and conductor section area)

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field. It can also be referred to ... more

Petroff's Law - Torque required to shear the lubricant film (for small radial loads)

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Hooke's Law (spring)

Hooke’s Law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the amount by which a material body is deformed (the strain) is linearly related to ... more


In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. It is expressed in newton metres (N·m) or foot-pound force (ft·lbf). In ... more

Biot number

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Shear Modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain. ... more

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