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Data Link Design

Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is an important parameter in digital communication or data transmission. It is a ... more

Noise Factor

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a ... more

Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a ... more

Tortuosity - alternative method

Tortuosity is a property of curve being tortuous (twisted; having many turns). There have been several attempts to quantify this property. ... more

Ricco's Law

Several laws describe a human’s ability to visually detect targets on a uniform background. One such law is Riccò's law, discovered by astronomer ... more

Tip Speed ratio

The tip-speed ratio, λ, or TSR for wind turbines is the ratio between the tangential speed of the tip of a blade and the actual ... more

Sound Intensity in relation to the distance

Sound intensity or acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Miles Equation

In 1954, Miles developed his version of this equation for GRMS as he was researching fatigue failure of aircraft structural ... more

Friis Transmission equation

The Friis transmission equation is used in telecommunications engineering, and gives the power received by one antenna under idealized conditions given ... more

Link Budget - Received Power

A link budget is accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter, through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, etc.) to the ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor (with maximum power point)

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Antenna Gain

In electromagnetics, an antenna’s power gain or simply gain is a key performance figure which combines the antenna’s directivity and electrical ... more

Friis Transmission equation (with dB units)

The Friis transmission equation is used in telecommunications engineering, and gives the power received by one antenna under idealized conditions given ... more

Antenna Gain - Relative to a Dipole

In electromagnetics, an antenna’s power gain or simply gain is a key performance figure which combines the antenna’s directivity and electrical ... more

Gain - Parabolic Antenna (also conical)

In electromagnetics, an antenna’s power gain or simply gain is a key performance figure which combines the antenna’s directivity and electrical ... more

Time Constant in RL electrical circuits

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of ... more

Time Constant in RC electrical circuits

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Time Constant in digital electronic circuits

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of ... more

Fractional bandwidth (RLC circuits)

The bandwidth as a fraction of the resonance frequency. Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous set of ... more

Luminosity for a black body

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

West number

The West number is an empirical parameter used to characterize the performance of Stirling engines and other Stirling systems. A Stirling engine is a heat ... more

Radio luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Beale number

In mechanical engineering, the Beale number is a parameter that characterizes the performance of Stirling engines. It is often used to estimate the power ... more

Gain of pyramidal horn antenna

A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam. Horns are ... more

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