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Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massless particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

Polarization angle (Brewster's angle)

The angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection. ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Sagnac Effect - TIme Difference

The Sagnac effect (also called Sagnac interference), named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is ... more

Planck's law ( by wavelength)

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Stress-Optic Law

Photoelasticity is an experimental method to determine the stress distribution in a material.Unlike the analytical methods of stress determination, ... more

Gaussian beam ( radius of curvature )

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Lensmaker's equation

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

Numerical Aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can ... more

Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

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