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Intensity - Mathematical description

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the ... more

Time of Flight

Time of flight (TOF) describes a variety of methods that measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic, ... more

Rayleigh length (range)

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to ... more

Arbitrary Cherenkov emission angle

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation,[a] is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Gaussian beam (Beam width or spot size)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Abbe number ( V-number)

Abbe number , is a measure of the material’s dispersion in relation to the refractive index, with high values of V indicating low dispersion (low ... more

Energy of a Photon

A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic ... more

Wavelength - Sinusoidal Wave

In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats, and the inverse ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

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