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Mechanical Advantage - Differential Pulley

Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. Ideally, the device preserves ... more

Magnetic flux through a solenoid

A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Radius of the turn of leaning bike (for small steering angles)

This lean of the bike decreases the actual radius of the turn proportionally to the cosine of the lean angle. The resulting radius can be approximated ... more

Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

Volume of cone (by the diameter)


A cone is an n-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a base (usually flat and circular) to a point called the apex or ... more

Maximum thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle

The constant volume adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature that results from a complete combustion process that occurs without any work, heat ... more


Enthalpy is a defined thermodynamic potential, that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Van der Waals equation of state

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons: Molecules are thought as ... more

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