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Biot number

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Characteristic Length

In physics, a characteristic length is an important dimension that defines the scale of a physical system. Often, such a length is used as an input to a ... more

Rayleigh number (related to Grashof and Prandtl number)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

The PÃ©clet number (Pe) is a class of dimensionless numbers relevant in the study of transport phenomena in a continuum. It is named after the French ... more

Thermal Expansion - Linear

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. When a substance is heated, ... more

The PÃ©clet number (Pe) is a class of dimensionless numbers relevant in the study of transport phenomena in a continuum. It is named after the French ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Franciscoâ€™s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from â€“15ÂºC to 40ÂºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.

Strategy

Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , Î”L . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, Î± ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, Î”T , is 55ÂºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit

Discussion

Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Churchillâ€“Bernstein Equation

The equation yields the surface averaged Nusselt number, which is used to determine the average convective heat transfer coefficient. Newton’s law of ... more

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