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The Richardson number (Ri) is named after Lewis Fry Richardson (1881 – 1953). It is the dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of potential to ... more

The Richardson number (Ri) is named after Lewis Fry Richardson (1881 – 1953). It is the dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of potential to ... more

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or ... more

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

In heat transfer and fluid dynamics, the film temperature is an approximation to the temperature of a fluid inside a convection boundary layer. It is ... more

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

In physics, a characteristic length is an important dimension that defines the scale of a physical system. Often, such a length is used as an input to a ... more

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

The Péclet number (Pe) is a class of dimensionless numbers relevant in the study of transport phenomena in a continuum. It is named after the French ... more

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. When a substance is heated, ... more

The Péclet number (Pe) is a class of dimensionless numbers relevant in the study of transport phenomena in a continuum. It is named after the French ... more

Strategy

Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , **ΔL** . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, **α** ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, **ΔT** , is **55ºC**

**(b)** convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. *****this section is not included in the Reference material*

Discussion

Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

The equation yields the surface averaged Nusselt number, which is used to determine the average convective heat transfer coefficient. Newton’s law of ... more

The Stanton number, St, is a dimensionless number that measures the ratio of heat transferred into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid. The Stanton ... more

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in length, area or volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer.

The
... more

Concentric Tube (or Pipe) Heat Exchangers are used in a variety of industries for purposes such as material processing, food preparation, and ... more

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The ... more

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The heat ... more

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. For a solid, we can ignore ... more

The rate of heat transfer between the bulk of the fluid inside the pipe and the pipe external surface is related to the pipe surface area, the wall ... more

Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance ... more

The Froude number (Fr) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of a characteristic velocity to a gravitational wave velocity. It may equivalently be ... more

The Sherwood number (Sh) (also called the mass transfer Nusselt number) is a dimensionless number used in mass-transfer operation. It represents the ratio ... more

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The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is

1275 mlong at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from–15ºCto40ºC.(a)What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.