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Magnus effect

The Magnus effect is the commonly observed effect in which a spinning ball (or cylinder) curves away from its principal flight path.The overall behaviour ... more

Tension to restrain a floating object

Archimedes’ principle states that “Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the ... more

Glide Ratio

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals. It is employed by ... more

Horizontal Curve - Degree of curve

Aside from momentum, when a vehicle makes a turn, two forces are acting upon it. The first is gravity, which pulls the vehicle toward the ground. The ... more

Hydraulic conductivity (Constant-head method)

Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore ... more

Electrokinesis

Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study ... more

Force exerted by stretched or contracted material

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Shock Diamond - distance from the nozzle

Shock diamonds (also known as Mach diamonds, Mach disks, Mach rings, doughnut tails or thrust diamonds) are a formation of standing wave patterns that ... more

Horizontal Curve - Allowable radius

The allowable radius for a horizontal curve can then be determined by knowing the intended design velocity, the coefficient of friction, and the allowed ... more

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