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Achromatic doublet (lens power)

An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration. Achromatic lenses are corrected to ... more

Snell's Law (related to indices of refraction)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Molar Refractivity - related to pressure

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Rydberg formula for any hydrogen-like element

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements.Rydberg worked on a formula ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Numerical Aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can ... more

Molar Refractivity

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Polarization angle (Brewster's angle)

The angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection. ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rydberg formula - For hydrogen

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements. It was formulated by the Swedish ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Refractive Index (electromagnetic radiation)

The refractive index is used for optics in Fresnel equations and Snell’s law; while the relative permittivity and permeability are used in ... more

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is a simple graphical indicator that can be used to analyze remote sensing ... more

Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

Rydberg formula - For hydrogen-like element

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements. It was formulated by the Swedish ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Planck's law ( by wavelength)

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Wien's displacement law

Wien’s displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperature peaks at a wavelength that is inversely proportional to ... more

Radio luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Balmer's formula

Balmer noticed that a single number had a relation to every line in the hydrogen spectrum that was in the visible light region. That number was 364.50682 ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Lensmaker's equation

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

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