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Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Refractive Index (electromagnetic radiation)

The refractive index is used for optics in Fresnel equations and Snell’s law; while the relative permittivity and permeability are used in ... more

Numerical Aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Rydberg formula for any hydrogen-like element

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements.Rydberg worked on a formula ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is a simple graphical indicator that can be used to analyze remote sensing ... more

Radio luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Lensmaker's equation

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

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