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Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Released energy of exergonic reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass ... more

Evaporation - Penman Equation (Shuttleworth modification)

The Penman equation describes evaporation (E) from an open water surface, and was developed by Howard Penman in 1948. Penman’s equation requires ... more

Helmholtz coil ( the magnetic field at the center point)

A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field. It consists of two identical solenoid electromagnets on the same ... more

Propellant mass fraction

In aerospace engineering, the propellant mass fraction is the portion of a vehicle’s mass which does not reach the destination, usually used as a ... more

Activity coefficient

An activity coefficient is a factor used in thermodynamics to account for deviations from ideal behaviour in a mixture of chemical substances.In an ideal ... more

Standard normal distribution (probability density function when μ=0 and σ^2 = 1/2π)

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution—a function that tells the ... more

Joule's first law

Joule heating , is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat. Joule heating is depending on the resistance ... more

Antoine Equation

The Antoine equation is a vapor pressure equation and describes the relation between vapor pressure and temperature for pure components. The Antoine ... more

Spherical wedge (Volume)

A spherical wedge or ungula is a portion of a ball bounded by two plane semidisks and a spherical lune (termed the wedge’s base). The angle between ... more

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