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Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration. Achromatic lenses are corrected to ... more

In orbital mechanics, Kepler’s equation relates various geometric properties of the orbit of a body subject to a central force.

It was first ... more

An angle bisector divides the angle into two angles with equal measures. An angle only has one bisector. Each point of an angle bisector is equidistant ... more

Wind speed extrapolation

In wind energy studies, two mathematical models or 'laws’ have generally been used to model the vertical profile of ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.

When a perfect
... more

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