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Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of pressure

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Gibbs free energy (when charge is passed in a battery)

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system, at a ... more

Ideal gas - isothermal process function of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Entropy of isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Temperature and Pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Temperature and density

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Pressure and volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Compressed air energy storage (Work for compression)

Compressed air energy storage is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air. In order to achieve a near ... more

Landauer's Principle

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

Entropy of isochoric process

An isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the ... more

Exhaust Gas Velocity

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced ... more

West number

The West number is an empirical parameter used to characterize the performance of Stirling engines and other Stirling systems. A Stirling engine is a heat ... more

NTU method - maximum heat transfer rate (q_max)

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

Standard change of reaction in Gibbs free energy

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

NTU method - the heat transferred between the fluids (q)

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

Enthalpy of isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature difference or simply by its initialism LMTD) is ... more

Ripple voltage (full-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Ripple voltage (half-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Exchanged Heat in a Heat Exchanger

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature difference or simply by its initialism LMTD) is ... more

NTU method - actual heat transfer rate (q) (relative to the cold fluid)

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

NTU method - actual heat transfer rate (q) (relative to the hot fluid)

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy - General version

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
Total energy is constant in any process. It may change in form or be transferred from one system to ... more

Heat flux (Advection)

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The ... more

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