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Fourier number ( thermal )

The Fourier number (Fo) or Fourier modulus, is a dimensionless number that characterizes heat conduction. it is the ratio of diffusive/conductive transport ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Convective heat transfer coefficient with Nusselt number for Internal/turbulent flow

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Area thermal expansion coefficient

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in length, area or volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer.
The ... more

Roshko number

In fluid mechanics, the Roshko number is a dimensionless number describing oscillating flow mechanisms.It is related to the Strouhal number and the ... more

Bejan number - Fluid mechanichs

In the context of fluid mechanics. the Bejan number is the dimensionless pressure drop along a channel of length.

... more

Fourier Number (mass)

The Fourier number (Fo) or Fourier modulus, is a dimensionless number that characterizes heat conduction. It is the ratio of diffusive/conductive ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.


Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit


Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Churchill–Bernstein Equation

The equation yields the surface averaged Nusselt number, which is used to determine the average convective heat transfer coefficient. Newton’s law of ... more

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