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Moist unit weight

In fluid mechanics, specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as a characteristic ... more

Dry unit weight

n fluid mechanics, specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as a characteristic ... more

Submerged unit weight

In fluid mechanics, specific weight ( or unit weight ) represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as ... more

Degree of saturation

Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the myriad of organisms that together support plant life. The ratio of the volume of ... more

Porosity (density related)

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., “empty”) spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the ... more

Porosity

The volume of the voids of a soil over the total volume of the sample defines the porosity of a soil. Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and ... more

Relative density of soil

Silts, sands and gravels are classified by their size, and hence they may consist of a variety of minerals. Owing to the stability of quartz compared to ... more

Specific gravity of solids

Silts, sands and gravels are classified by their size, and hence they may consist of a variety of minerals. Owing to the stability of quartz compared to ... more

Wet bulk density of soil (total bulk density)

Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other “divided” solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), ... more

Dry bulk density of soil

Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other “divided” solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical ... more

Worksheet 296

(a) Calculate the buoyant force on 10,000 metric tons (1.00×10 7 kg) of solid steel completely submerged in water, and compare this with the steel’s weight.

(b) What is the maximum buoyant force that water could exert on this same steel if it were shaped into a boat that could displace 1.00×10 5 m 3 of water?

Strategy for (a)

To find the buoyant force, we must find the weight of water displaced. We can do this by using the densities of water and steel given in Table [insert table #] We note that, since the steel is completely submerged, its volume and the water’s volume are the same. Once we know the volume of water, we can find its mass and weight

First, we use the definition of density to find the steel’s volume, and then we substitute values for mass and density. This gives :

Density

Because the steel is completely submerged, this is also the volume of water displaced, Vw. We can now find the mass of water displaced from the relationship between its volume and density, both of which are known. This gives:

Density

By Archimedes’ principle, the weight of water displaced is m w g , so the buoyant force is:

Force (Newton's second law)

The steel’s weight is 9.80×10 7 N , which is much greater than the buoyant force, so the steel will remain submerged.

Strategy for (b)

Here we are given the maximum volume of water the steel boat can displace. The buoyant force is the weight of this volume of water.

The mass of water displaced is found from its relationship to density and volume, both of which are known. That is:

Density

The maximum buoyant force is the weight of this much water, or

Force (Newton's second law)

Discussion

The maximum buoyant force is ten times the weight of the steel, meaning the ship can carry a load nine times its own weight without sinking.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Hydraulic conductivity (Falling-head method)

Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore ... more

Volumetric water content

Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, fruit, or wood. ... more

Hydraulic conductivity (Constant-head method)

Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore ... more

Normalized water content ( effective saturation van Genuchten)

In soil mechanics and petroleum engineering, water content or soil moisture content is the quantity of water contained in the soil. The normalized water ... more

Specific Weight

The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material.
The terms specific gravity, and less often specific ... more

Bearing capacity for square foundations (Terzaghi's Theory)

In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity of soil is the ... more

Bearing capacity for circular foundations (Terzaghi's Theory)

In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity of soil is the ... more

Bearing capacity for continuous foundations (Terzaghi's Theory)

In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity of soil is the ... more

Infiltration

Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil ... more

Hydraulic conductivity (as a function of water)

By definition, hydraulic conductivity is the ratio of velocity to hydraulic gradient indicating permeability of porous media.

Civil engineers ... more

Darcy's law (simplified)

Darcy’s law states that the volume of flow of the pore fluid through a porous medium per unit time is proportional to the rate of change of excess ... more

Drainage Hooghoudt's equation

A drainage equation is an equation describing the relation between depth and spacing of parallel subsurface drains, depth of the watertable, depth and ... more

Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate

The lapse rate is defined as the rate at which atmospheric temperature decreases with increase in altitude. The terminology arises from the word lapse in ... more

Arithmetic mean size - 1st moment

Calculates the arithmetic mean size (arithmetic method of moments) of the particles’ size distribution of a soil, in metric scale. In statistics, the ... more

Hydrostatic weighing

Hydrostatic weighing, also referred to as “underwater weighing,” “hydrostatic body composition analysis,” and ... more

Direct mesurement of the Volumetric Water content

Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, fruit, or wood. ... more

Specific Impulse by weight

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. By definition, it is the impulse delivered per unit of ... more

Specific Impulse by weight - with mass flow rate

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. By definition, it is the impulse delivered per unit of ... more

Thom correlation

There exist simple fluid-specific correlations for heat transfer coefficient in boiling. The Thom correlation is for the flow of boiling water (subcooled ... more

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