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For many applications involving terrestrial albedo, the albedo at a particular solar zenith angle θi can reasonably be approximated by the formula ... more

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

In geometry, a torus (pl. tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the ... more

A limaçon is a bicircular rational plane algebraic curve of degree 4. Limaçon of Pascal, is defined as a roulette formed when a circle rolls around the ... more

Karl von Terzaghi was the first to present a comprehensive theory for the evaluation of the ultimate bearing capacity of rough shallow foundations. This ... more

The basic principle of the Vickers hardness test, as with all common measures of hardness, is to observe the questioned material’s ability to resist ... more

The elliptic paraboloid is shaped like an oval cup and can have a maximum or minimum point. In a suitable coordinate system with three axes x, y, and z, it ... more

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of ... more

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

In lead climbing using a dynamic rope, the fall factor (f) is the ratio of the height (h) a climber falls before the climber’s rope begins to stretch ... more

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