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Ripple factor (choke)

For the root mean square value of the ripple voltage, the calculation is more involved as the shape of the ripple waveform has a bearing on the result. ... more

Escape Velocity

Escape velocity is the speed at which the kinetic energy plus the gravitational potential energy of an object is zero. It is the speed needed to ... more

Future value of an annuity

Future value of an annuity is the future value of a stream of payments (annuity), assuming the payments are invested at a given rate of interest. The ... more

Electric flux (in a uniform field)

Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going ... more

Standard normal distribution (probability density function when μ=0 and σ^2 = 1/2π)

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution—a function that tells the ... more

Perpendicular axis theorem ( at moments of inertia)

Perpendicular axis theorem (or plane figure theorem) can be used to determine the moment of inertia of a rigid object that lies entirely within a plane, ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - electron impact cross-section

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.


Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit


Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Vertical Curve - Stopping Sight Distance

Sight distance is dependent on the type of curve used and the design speed. For crest curves, sight distance is limited by the curve itself, as the curve ... more

Spherical wedge (Volume)

A spherical wedge or ungula is a portion of a ball bounded by two plane semidisks and a spherical lune (termed the wedge’s base). The angle between ... more

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