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Ideal rocket equation (Tsiolkovsky rocket equation)

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Ball Screw - Buckling Load

A ball screw is a mechanical linear actuator that translates rotational motion to linear motion with little friction. A threaded shaft provides a helical ... more

Engine displacement

Engine displacement is the volume swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (... more


In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Petroff's Law - Torque required to shear the lubricant film

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Compound machines (mechanical advantage)

A compound machine is a machine formed from a set of simple machines connected in series with the output force of one providing the input force to the ... more

Moment of inertia of a torus of tube (about a diameter)

Mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about an axis, and is the rotational analogue to mass.
A ... more

Angular Velocity - related to linear velocity

In physics, the angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity (more precisely, a pseudovector) which ... more

Friction Loss (turbulent flow)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

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