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The angular resolution may be converted into a spatial resolution,by multiplication of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object. For a ... more

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Doppler Effect is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.Compared to the emitted ... more

Doppler Effect is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.Compared to the emitted ... more

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

The beam diameter or beam width of an electromagnetic beam is the diameter along any specified line that is perpendicular to the beam axis and intersects ... more

Snell’s law (also known as the Snellâ€“Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.

In particular, a family of lattice planes is
... more

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