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Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Moment of inertia factor

In planetary sciences, the moment of inertia factor or normalized polar moment of inertia is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the radial ... more

Electromagnetic mass (transverse mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can increase the ... more

Water Rocket - peak height

A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. Such a rocket is typically made from a used plastic soft drink bottle. The water ... more

Vis-Viva Equation

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Planet Formation Equation - "Clearing the neighbourhood"

“Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit” is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System. This was one ... more

Critical Damping Coefficient

A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. If a ... more

Fall Impact Force

In lead climbing using a dynamic rope, the fall factor (f) is the ratio of the height (h) a climber falls before the climber’s rope begins to stretch ... more

Sensible Heat

Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system that changes the temperature, and some macroscopic variables of the body, but leaves ... more

Standard Gravitational Parameter

In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the ... more

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