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Ripple voltage (half-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Relations between polarization density and electric displacement field

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of ... more

Sine wave

The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the ... more

Power emitted by a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Bragg's Law

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more


In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Albedo - correlation with Absolute Magnitude and Diameter

Albedo (/ælˈbiːdoʊ/), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo “whiteness” (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus ... more

Signal Attenuation

In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. For instance, dark ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Open circuited stub - input impedance

In microwave and radio-frequency engineering, a stub or resonant stub is a length of transmission line or waveguide that is connected at one end only. The ... more

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