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Rayleigh number (for a uniform wall heating flux)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Tractive Force - Steam locomotives

As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total ... more

Bernoulli’s Equation (conservation of energy)

Bernoulli’s equation states that for an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the above mentioned sum is constant. If we follow a small volume of fluid along ... more

Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate

The lapse rate is defined as the rate at which atmospheric temperature decreases with increase in altitude. The terminology arises from the word lapse in ... more

Heat capacity ratio

Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or subtracted from) an object to the ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Entropy of isothermal process in terms of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Heat flow in electronics - maximum power dissipate

The heat flow can be modelled by analogy to an electrical circuit where heat flow is represented by current, temperatures are represented by voltages, heat ... more

Daniell cell

The Daniell cell is a type of electrochemical cell consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed ... more

Euler's pump and turbine equation

The Euler’s pump and turbine equations are most fundamental equations in the field of turbo-machinery. These equations govern the power, efficiencies and ... more

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