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Earth Similarity Index

The Earth Similarity Index, ESI or “easy scale” is a measure of how physically similar a planetary-mass object is to ... more

Albedo - pure number

For many applications involving terrestrial albedo, the albedo at a particular solar zenith angle θi can reasonably be approximated by the formula ... more


Absorbance is a quantitative measure expressed as a logarithmic ratio between the radiation falling upon a material and the radiation transmitted through a ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Loss due to Antenna Misalignment

Antenna measurement techniques refers to the testing of antennas to ensure that the antenna meets specifications or simply to characterize it. Typical ... more

Airy disk

In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture ... more

Compound interest

Compound interest is interest added to the principal of a deposit or loan so that the added interest also earns interest from then on. This addition of ... more

Relativistic momentum of rigid bodies

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a ... more

Second moment of area - Hollow Rectangular profile

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, polar moment of area or second area moment, is a ... more

Aperture area

Aperture is a “hole” or an opening through which light travels. The aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle ... more

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