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Absolute Magnitude of a Star - with luminosity distance

Absolute magnitude is the measure of a celestial object’s intrinsic brightness. It is the hypothetical apparent magnitude of an object at a standard ... more

Absolute Magnitude of a Star - with parallax

Absolute magnitude is the measure of a celestial object’s intrinsic brightness. It is the hypothetical apparent magnitude of an object at a standard ... more

Albedo - correlation with Absolute Magnitude and Diameter

Albedo (/ælˈbiːdoʊ/), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo “whiteness” (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus ... more

Radio luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Luminosity for a black body

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Magnitude of proper motion

Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the ... more

Magnitude of proper motion (μα*)

Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the ... more

Proper motion (declination)

Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the ... more

Proper motion (right ascension)

Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the ... more

Velocity at a distance x (for object following a ballistic trajectory)

A trajectory or flight path is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time. A trajectory can be described mathematically ... more

Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to the mass of a single molecule

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (Probability density function)

In physics, particularly statistical mechanics, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution or Maxwell speed distribution describes particle speeds in idealized ... more

Surface wave magnitude scale

The surface wave magnitude (M_s) scale is one of the magnitude scales used in seismology to describe the size of an earthquake. It is based on measurements ... more

Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

It serves as the ... more

Coulomb's law

Coulomb’s law, or Coulomb’s inverse-square law, is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to molar mass

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Working f-Number (related to uncorrected f-Number)

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

Richter magnitude scale

assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an earthquake. The Richter scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude as ... more

Capacitance of a Pair of parallel identical wires

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. The capacitance is a ... more

Weight

In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity.
In Newtonian physics the weight is ... more

Child's Law - related to anode voltage

First proposed by Clement D. Child in 1911, Child’s law states that the space-charge limited current (SCLC) in a ... more

Creep (deformation)

In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of ... more

Crest curve length when S>L (Vertical curves for highway design)

Crest vertical curves are curves which, when viewed from the side, are convex upwards. This includes vertical curves at hill crests, but it also includes ... more

Crest curve length when S<L (Vertical curves for highway design)

Crest vertical curves are curves which, when viewed from the side, are convex upwards. This includes vertical curves at hill crests, but it also includes ... more

Varignon's theorem in statics

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below) is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. In addition to the tendency to ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Radial acceleration in circular motion ( related to period)

Uniform circular motion, that is constant speed along a circular path, is an example of a body experiencing acceleration resulting in velocity of a ... more

Radial acceleration in circular motion

Uniform circular motion, that is constant speed along a circular path, is an example of a body experiencing acceleration resulting in velocity of a ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

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