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Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.The model takes the form of an equation describing the rate of enzymatic ... more

Stoichiometry /ˌstɔɪkiˈɒmɨtri/ is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry is founded on the ... more

Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions ... more

A first-order reaction depends on the concentration of only **one** reactant (a unimolecular reaction). Other reactants can be present, but
... more

The concentration of a substance at time “t”, of a first-order reaction, depends only on the initial concentration and the properties of the ... more

In chemistry, a reaction quotient: Qr is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction. In the ... more

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

The formula provides a way to determine the volume-based concentration of any individual gaseous component.

Dalton’s law is not strictly ... more

Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level is most ... more

In chemistry, a reaction quotient: Qr is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction. In the ... more

Effusion is the process in which a gas escapes through a small hole. This occurs if the diameter of the hole is considerably smaller than the mean free ... more

The effective interest rate, effective annual interest rate, annual equivalent rate (AER) or simply effective rate is the ... more

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell ... more

A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. A ... more

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins. These groups, from least dense to most dense, are: ... more

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins. These groups, from least dense to most dense, are: ... more

The **Tsiolkovsky rocket equation**, or ideal rocket equation describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a
... more

The basic principle of the Vickers hardness test, as with all common measures of hardness, is to observe the questioned material’s ability to resist ... more

Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. For two ... more

where **t** is the total consumption time, **t _{d}** is the days of consumption and

**t**the hours of consumption per day

_{h}where **P** is Power consumption rate, **E** is the energy supplied by the electricity company and **t** is consumption time

keywords:

ballistics

where **C** is the total cost and **C _{kW}** is the cost per kilowatt hour

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell ... more

Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is ... more

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the ... more

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule ... more

A typical small rescue helicopter, like the one in the Figure below, has four blades, each is **4.00 m** long and has a mass of **50.0 kg**. The blades can be approximated as thin rods that rotate about one end of an axis perpendicular to their length. The helicopter has a total loaded mass of **1000 kg**. **(a)** Calculate the rotational kinetic energy in the blades when they rotate at **300 rpm**. **(b)** Calculate the translational kinetic energy of the helicopter when it flies at **20.0 m/s**, and compare it with the rotational energy in the blades. **(c)** To what height could the helicopter be raised if all of the rotational kinetic energy could be used to lift it?

The first image shows how helicopters store large amounts of rotational kinetic energy in their blades. This energy must be put into the blades before takeoff and maintained until the end of the flight. The engines do not have enough power to simultaneously provide lift and put significant rotational energy into the blades.

The second image shows a helicopter from the Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter Service. Over 50,000 lives have been saved since its operations beginning in 1973. Here, a water rescue operation is shown. (credit: 111 Emergency, Flickr)

Strategy

Rotational and translational kinetic energies can be calculated from their definitions. The last part of the problem relates to the idea that energy can change form, in this case from rotational kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy.

Solution for **(a)**

We must convert the angular velocity to radians per second and calculate the moment of inertia before we can find **E _{r}** . The angular velocity

**ω**for

**1 r.p.m**is

and for **300 r.p.m**

The moment of inertia of one blade will be that of a thin rod rotated about its end.

The total I is four times this moment of inertia, because there are four blades. Thus,

and so The rotational kinetic energy is

Solution for **(b)**

Translational kinetic energy is defined as

To compare kinetic energies, we take the ratio of translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy. This ratio is

Solution for **(c)**

At the maximum height, all rotational kinetic energy will have been converted to gravitational energy. To find this height, we equate those two energies:

Discussion

The ratio of translational energy to rotational kinetic energy is only **0.380**. This ratio tells us that most of the kinetic energy of the helicopter is in its spinning blades—something you probably would not suspect. The **53.7 m** height to which the helicopter could be raised with the rotational kinetic energy is also impressive, again emphasizing the amount of rotational kinetic energy in the blades.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

he Bagnold number (Ba) is the ratio of grain collision stresses to viscous fluid stresses in a granular flow with interstitial Newtonian fluid, first ... more

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. It represents the force with respect to the ... more

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

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