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Characteristic Length

In physics, a characteristic length is an important dimension that defines the scale of a physical system. Often, such a length is used as an input to a ... more

Bradley model of the force applied on a contact area between two spheres

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. When two solid surfaces are brought into close ... more

Rydberg formula - For hydrogen

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements. It was formulated by the Swedish ... more

Speeds and feeds - Spindle speed

The phrase speeds and feeds or feeds and speeds refers to two separate velocities in machine tool practice, cutting speed and feed rate. They are often ... more

Depth of focus (depth of field) in relation to the magnification

The depth of focus (or depth of field) is a lens optics concept that measures the tolerance of placement of the image plane (the film plane in a camera) in ... more

Kepler's Second Law

In astronomy, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

1.The orbit of a ... more

Specific absorption rate - with Current density

Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio ... more

Earth Similarity Index

The Earth Similarity Index, ESI or “easy scale” is a measure of how physically similar a planetary-mass object is to ... more


In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar ... more

Friction Loss (hydraulic slope)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

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