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Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Griffith's criterion in Linear elastic fracture mechanics (critical stress intensity factor)

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid ... more

Reflection coefficient (wave normal incidence)

At the boundary between media of different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. The greater the difference in ... more

Absolute Magnitude of a Star - with distance modulus

Absolute magnitude is the measure of a celestial object’s intrinsic brightness. It is the hypothetical apparent magnitude of an object at a standard ... more

Gaussian beam (beam width at a distance equal to the Rayleigh range)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Absolute Magnitude of a Star - with parallax

Absolute magnitude is the measure of a celestial object’s intrinsic brightness. It is the hypothetical apparent magnitude of an object at a standard ... more

Gaussian beam ( radius of curvature )

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Gaussian beam (Beam width or spot size)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Latent Heat

Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed by a body or a thermodynamic system during a constant-temperature process. A typical example is a change of ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

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