Rolling Resistance Coefficient
Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation (or movement) of the wheel, roadbed, etc. is recovered when the pressure is removed. Two forms of this are hysteresis losses (see below), and permanent (plastic) deformation of the object or the surface (e.g. soil). Another cause of rolling resistance lies in the slippage between the wheel and the surface, which dissipates energy.
In analogy with sliding friction, rolling resistance is often expressed as a coefficient times the normal force. This coefficient of rolling resistance is generally much smaller than the coefficient of sliding friction.
This is the force needed to push (or tow) a wheeled vehicle forward (at constant speed on the level with no air resistance) per unit force of weight
|Crr||rolling resistance coefficient (dimensionless)|
|F||rolling resistance force (N)|
|N||normal force, the force perpendicular to the surface on which the wheel is rolling (N)|