Free-Space Path Loss (in dB)
In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the loss in signal strength of an electromagnetic wave that would result from a line-of-sight path through free space (usually air), with no obstacles nearby to cause reflection or diffraction. It is defined in “Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas”, IEEE Std 145-1983, as “The loss between two isotropic radiators in free space, expressed as a power ratio.” Usually it is expressed in dB, although the IEEE standard does not say that. So it assumes that the antenna gain is a power ratio of 1.0, or 0 dB. It does not include any loss associated with hardware imperfections, or the effects of any antennas gain. A discussion of these losses may be found in the article on link budget. The FSPL is rarely used standalone, but rather as a part of the Friis transmission equation, which includes the gain of antennas.
Free-space path loss is proportional to the square of the distance between the transmitter and receiver, and also proportional to the square of the frequency of the radio signal.Related formulas
|FSPL||free-space path loss (dB) (dimensionless)|
|c||Speed of light|
|df||signal frequency (GHz)|