Crest curve length when S>L (Vertical curves for highway design)
Crest vertical curves are curves which, when viewed from the side, are convex upwards. This includes vertical curves at hill crests, but it also includes locations where an uphill grade becomes less steep, or a downhill grade becomes steeper. The most important design criterion for these curves is stopping sight distance. This is the distance a driver can see over the crest of the curve. If the driver cannot see an obstruction in the roadway, such as a stalled vehicle or an animal, the driver may not be able to stop the vehicle in time to avoid a crash. The desired stopping sight distance (S) is determined by the speed of traffic on a road. By first finding the stopping sight distance (S) and then solving for the curve length (L) in each of the equations below, the correct curve length can be determined. The proper equation depends on whether the vertical curve is shorter or longer than the available sight distance. Normally, both equations are solved, then the results are compared to the curve length.
The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called “livability,” which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage.
Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main parts: alignment, profile, and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-dimensional layout for a roadway.
1) The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a series of horizontal tangents and curves. (Curve sight Distance)
2) The profile is the vertical aspect of the road, including crest and sag curves, and the straight grade lines connecting them. (Sag curves, Crest curves)
3) The cross section shows the position and number of vehicle and bicycle lanes and sidewalks, along with their cross slope or banking. Cross sections also show drainage features, pavement structure and other items outside the category of geometric design.Related formulas
|L||curve length (along the x-axis) (dimensionless)|
|S||headlight sight distance (dimensionless)|
|h1||Height of eye above roadway (dimensionless)|
|h2||Height of object above roadway (dimensionless)|
|A||absolute value of the difference in grades (dimensionless)|