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Bernoulli's principle

Bernoulli’s principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with an increase in dynamic ... more

Law of the wall

In fluid dynamics, the law of the wall states that the average velocity of a turbulent flow at a certain point is proportional to the logarithm of the ... more

Hydrostatic Pressure - simplified version

In a fluid at rest, all frictional stresses vanish and the state of stress of the system is called hydrostatic.For water and other liquids, this integral ... more

Kozeny-Carman equation

The Kozeny–Carman equation (or Carman-Kozeny equation) is a relation used in the field of fluid dynamics to calculate the pressure drop of a fluid flowing ... more

Vertical Pressure variation of the Atmosphere of Earth( exponential function of height)

Vertical pressure variation is the variation in pressure as a function of elevation. The vertical variation is especially significant, as it results from ... more

Exhaust Gas Velocity

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced ... more

Friction Loss (laminar flow)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

Shear rate at the inner wall of a Newtonian fluid (flowing within a pipe)

A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are proportional to the local strain rate — the rate of ... more

Sears–Haack body (Wave Drag related to the Volume)

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume. The mathematical ... more

Sears–Haack body (Wave Drag related to the maximum Radius)

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume. The mathematical ... more

Borda–Carnot equation ( in relation to Bernoulli's principle)

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

Flow coefficient

The flow coefficient of a device is a relative measure of its efficiency at allowing fluid flow. It describes the relationship between the pressure drop ... more

Friction Loss (turbulent flow)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

Available NPSH in turbine (Net Positive Suction Head)

In a hydraulic circuit, net positive suction head (NPSH) may refer to one of two quantities in the analysis of cavitation:
... more

Worksheet 290

Find the terminal velocity of an 85-kg skydiver falling in a spread-eagle position.

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)
Rectangle area

where Vt is the terminal velocity, m is the mass of the skydiver, g is the acceleration due to gravity, Cd is the drag coefficient, ρ is the density of the fluid through which the object is falling, and A is the projected area of the object.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

where h is skydiver height and w the width at “spread-eagle” position

Terminal velocity (creeping flow conditions)

The terminal velocity of a falling object is the velocity of the object when the sum of the drag force and buoyancy equals the downward force of gravity ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to the mass of a single molecule

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Friction Loss (hydraulic slope) - related to pressure change

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

Darcy Weisbach equation (head loss)

In fluid dynamics, the Darcy–Weisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which relates the head loss — or pressure loss — due to friction along a ... more

Water Rocket - peak height

A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. Such a rocket is typically made from a used plastic soft drink bottle. The water ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Sliding gravity conveyer

calculates the speed of sliding of materials on a gravity conveyer

... more

Head loss in terms of volumetric flow rate

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum.
In any real moving fluid, energy is dissipated ... more

Worksheet 300

Calculate the Reynolds number N′R for a ball with a 7.40-cm diameter thrown at 40.0 m/s.

Strategy

We can use the Reynolds number equation calculate N’R , since all values in it are either given or can be found in tables of density and viscosity.

Solution

We first find the kinematic viscosity values:

Kinematic Viscosity

Substituting values into the equation for N’R yields:

Reynolds number

Discussion

This value is sufficiently high to imply a turbulent wake. Most large objects, such as airplanes and sailboats, create significant turbulence as they move. As noted before, the Bernoulli principle gives only qualitatively-correct results in such situations.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Reynolds number (for motion of an object in a viscous fluid)

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number is used to help predict if flow will be laminar or turbulent. We know that the flow around a smooth, streamlined ... more

Terminal velocity (potato-shaped obgject)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force ... more

Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or ... more

Karman vortex street formula

In fluid dynamics, a Kármán vortex street is a repeating pattern of swirling vortices caused by the unsteady separation of flow of a fluid around blunt ... more

Reynolds number (for a flow in a tube)

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number is used to help predict if flow will be laminar or turbulent. We know that flow in a very smooth tube, streamlined ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (for open channel flows)

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

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