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Pressure inside an ideal soap bubble

The pressure inside an ideal (one surface) soap bubble can be derived from thermodynamic free energy considerations. At constant temperature and in ... more

Hawking radiation energy of black-body (Planck) spectrum

black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A black hole ... more

Evaporation - Penman Equation (Shuttleworth modification)

The Penman equation describes evaporation (E) from an open water surface, and was developed by Howard Penman in 1948. Penman’s equation requires ... more

Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate

The lapse rate is defined as the rate at which atmospheric temperature decreases with increase in altitude. The terminology arises from the word lapse in ... more

Compressed air energy storage (Work for compression)

Compressed air energy storage is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air. In order to achieve a near ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Heat flow in electronics - maximum power dissipate

The heat flow can be modelled by analogy to an electrical circuit where heat flow is represented by current, temperatures are represented by voltages, heat ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - final flow density

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

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