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Thermal efficiency of a heat engine

Heat engines transform thermal energy, or heat into mechanical energy, or work. They cannot do this task perfectly, so some of the input heat energy is not ... more

Wind Energy

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to produce electrical power, windmills for mechanical ... more


Enthalpy is a defined thermodynamic potential, that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of ... more

Richardson Number

The Richardson number (Ri) is named after Lewis Fry Richardson (1881 – 1953). It is the dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of potential to ... more

Energy Density (electric field)

Lenz’s law /ˈlɛnts/ is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton’s third law and the conservation of energy. ... more

Anelastic Attenuation Factor

In reflection seismology, the anelastic attenuation factor, often expressed as seismic quality factor or Q (which is inversely proportional to attenuation ... more

Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Critical Damping Coefficient (related to the natural frequency)

A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. If a ... more

Knudsen number ( related to mean free path)

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale. ... more


Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. Capacitance is a ... more

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