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Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Relativistic energy–momentum relation

In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content. A physical system has a ... more

Allowable Strength Design Load combination (eq8)

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

Allowable Strength Design Load combination (eq1)

In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. ... more

Arithmetic Mean Return

Compound annual growth rate is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the ... more

Sortino ratio

The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes ... more

Cross Section (flux)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Radiated seismic energy magnitude

Potential energy is stored in the crust in the form of built-up stress. During an earthquake a small fraction of the seismic moment is converted into ... more

Fracture of ductile materials (Dissipated energy)

In ductile materials, a plastic zone develops at the tip of the crack. The plastic loading and unloading cycle near the crack tip leads to the dissipation ... more

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