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Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Relations between polarization density and electric displacement field

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of ... more

Thermal Diffusivity

In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity (usually denoted α but a, κ and D are also used) is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Torque on a dipole (electric field)

A physical dipole consists of two equal and opposite point charges An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges.The direction of an ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Electron impact cross-section (account for matrix effects)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Electrical conductance (related to the material and the shape of the conductor)

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that permits the flow of electrical current in one or more directions. ... more

Electric field

The electric field describes the electric force experienced by a motionless positively charged test particle at any point in space relative to the ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

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