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Force between two nearby magnetized surfaces (relative to flux density)

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Townsend avalanche (Townsend discharge)

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Hall coefficient

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Electric Current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried ... more

Cyclotron resonance frequency

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to ... more

Relations between polarization density and electric displacement field

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of ... more

Hall voltage (Hall effect)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Acceleration of a particle in an electric field

The electric field is a component of the electromagnetic field. It is a vector field, and it is generated by electric charges or time-varying magnetic ... more

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