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Force between two nearby magnetized surfaces

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Concrete electrical resistivity (rebars method)

Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures ... more

Gaussian beam (beam width at a distance equal to the Rayleigh range)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Photometric ( luminous) exposure

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Speed of light in matter

The speed of light in vacuum is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as ... more

Antenna Gain

In electromagnetics, an antenna’s power gain or simply gain is a key performance figure which combines the antenna’s directivity and electrical ... more

Electrical conductance (related to the material and the shape of the conductor)

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that permits the flow of electrical current in one or more directions. ... more

Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

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