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Chord length of a Circular segment

Circular segment is a region of a circle which is “cut off” from the rest of the circle by a secant or a chord. More formally, a Circular ... more

Apsidal precession

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession is the precession (gradual rotation) of the line connecting the apsides (line of apsides) of an astronomical ... more

Velocity of a simple harmonic motion

A simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement. The motion is sinusoidal in ... more

Volume of any right circular cone

Right circular cone is assumed to be a cone that its base is a circle and right means that the axis passes through the centre of the base at right angles ... more

Worksheet 296

(a) Calculate the buoyant force on 10,000 metric tons (1.00×10 7 kg) of solid steel completely submerged in water, and compare this with the steel’s weight.

(b) What is the maximum buoyant force that water could exert on this same steel if it were shaped into a boat that could displace 1.00×10 5 m 3 of water?

Strategy for (a)

To find the buoyant force, we must find the weight of water displaced. We can do this by using the densities of water and steel given in Table [insert table #] We note that, since the steel is completely submerged, its volume and the water’s volume are the same. Once we know the volume of water, we can find its mass and weight

First, we use the definition of density to find the steel’s volume, and then we substitute values for mass and density. This gives :


Because the steel is completely submerged, this is also the volume of water displaced, Vw. We can now find the mass of water displaced from the relationship between its volume and density, both of which are known. This gives:


By Archimedes’ principle, the weight of water displaced is m w g , so the buoyant force is:

Force (Newton's second law)

The steel’s weight is 9.80×10 7 N , which is much greater than the buoyant force, so the steel will remain submerged.

Strategy for (b)

Here we are given the maximum volume of water the steel boat can displace. The buoyant force is the weight of this volume of water.

The mass of water displaced is found from its relationship to density and volume, both of which are known. That is:


The maximum buoyant force is the weight of this much water, or

Force (Newton's second law)


The maximum buoyant force is ten times the weight of the steel, meaning the ship can carry a load nine times its own weight without sinking.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Tractive Force - Steam locomotives

As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total ... more

Worksheet 306

Calculate the force the biceps muscle must exert to hold the forearm and its load as shown in the figure below, and compare this force with the weight of the forearm plus its load. You may take the data in the figure to be accurate to three significant figures.

(a) The figure shows the forearm of a person holding a book. The biceps exert a force FB to support the weight of the forearm and the book. The triceps are assumed to be relaxed. (b) Here, you can view an approximately equivalent mechanical system with the pivot at the elbow joint


There are four forces acting on the forearm and its load (the system of interest). The magnitude of the force of the biceps is FB, that of the elbow joint is FE, that of the weights of the forearm is wa , and its load is wb. Two of these are unknown FB, so that the first condition for equilibrium cannot by itself yield FB . But if we use the second condition and choose the pivot to be at the elbow, then the torque due to FE is zero, and the only unknown becomes FB .


The torques created by the weights are clockwise relative to the pivot, while the torque created by the biceps is counterclockwise; thus, the second condition for equilibrium (net τ = 0) becomes

Force (Newton's second law)
Force (Newton's second law)

Note that sin θ = 1 for all forces, since θ = 90º for all forces. This equation can easily be solved for FB in terms of known quantities,yielding. Entering the known values gives

Mechanical equilibrium - 3=3 Torque example

which yields


Now, the combined weight of the arm and its load is known, so that the ratio of the force exerted by the biceps to the total weight is



This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force 7.38 times the weight supported.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Freefall in Uniform Gravitational Field with Air Resistance (velocity)

Free fall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In Uniform gravitational field with air resistance the air resistance ... more

Vis-Viva Equation - cirlcular orbit

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Energy of damped harmonic motion

Damped harmonic motion is a real oscillation, in which an object is hanging on a spring. Because of the existence of internal friction and air resistance, ... more

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