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External Distance (Horizontal curves for highway design)

Horizontal alignment in road design consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by circular horizontal curves. Circular curves are ... more

Tangent Length (Horizontal curves for highway design)

Horizontal alignment in road design consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by circular horizontal curves. Circular curves are ... more

Gearing reduction ratio

Harmonic Drive is the brand name of strain wave gear trademarked by the Harmonic Drive company, and invented in 1957 by C.W. Musser.

It is very ... more

Mean Orbital Speed

The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around ... more

Heliocentric distance

In astronomy, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

1- The orbit of ... more

Acceleration

Acceleration, in physics, is the rate at which the velocity of an object changes over time. Mathematically, instantaneous acceleration—acceleration over an ... more

Mean angular motion

In orbital mechanics, mean motion (represented by n) is the angular speed required for a body to complete one orbit, assuming constant speed in a circular ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Mean anomaly - function of gravitational parameter

In celestial mechanics, the mean anomaly is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical two-body problem. ... more

Mean Motion

In orbital mechanics, mean motion (represented by ) is a measure of how fast a satellite progresses around its elliptical orbit. The mean motion is the ... more

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